During 20 years of civil war, more than 75% of public schools were either destroyed or closed in South and Central Somalia.
In the last years, with support of GPE, the authorities have again started to build the education system in Puntland and Somaliland. For South and Central Somalia, the Federal Government is still taking direct responsibility.
Each region has developed a transitional education strategy endorsed by the education sector committees.
Ongoing advocacy has resulted in an increase by the Puntland government of its budget to education to 7.14% in 2014. Education spending in Somaliland increased to 8% in 2014. Reliable figures on domestic funding to education in South and Central Somalia are not available.
In 2014, the first joint sector reviews of the education sectors for Somaliland, Puntland and South and Central Somalia were organized, with participation of civil society organizations and teacher associations. Somaliland and Puntland held their second joint sector reviews in March 2015.
Education Sector Committees have been set up for Somaliland, Puntland and South and Central Somalia. In addition, a global Education Sector Committee (ESC) meets in Nairobi to coordinate donor support. The coordinating agency is USAID.
South Central Zone
The Interim Education Sector Strategic Plan for South Central Zone covers the period 2013/2014 to 2015/2016. The plan wants to develop a vibrant, efficient and accountable education system to improve access, quality, and gender equity at all levels of education.
In order to achieve its goals, the plan defines the following objectives:
Establish an education pooled fund initially co-managed by a managing entity to resource the establishment and development of the sector.
Mobilize funding from the government, the donor partner community and other sources, including the Diaspora.
Create institutions and systems necessary to develop, manage and provide effective education sector service delivery.
Restore basic education (early childhood education, primary and secondary levels) by adopting measures to provide school accommodation, teachers and relevant teaching and learning materials.
Address the needs of marginalized children through innovative and diverse delivery approaches.
Develop a livelihood-orientated curriculum by ensuring that schooling is linked to the creation of economic development activities and earning a living.
Develop youth empowerment programs leading to gainful employment.
The Puntland Education Sector Strategic Plan covers the period 2012-2016. Its vision is to build "quality education systems that guarantee and foster success for learners of all abilities”.
Puntland’s education plan is comprehensive and covers the whole education sector. However the state has determined that its three priorities for 2012-2016 are:
non formal education, technical and vocational education and training.
Puntland has defined the following objectives for the period covered by the plan:
Improve the quality of education at all levels, through improving literacy and numeracy, teacher quality, curriculum, assessments, system management, infrastructure and financing.
Achieve universal primary education.
Improve adult literacy and access to life skills and continuing education for adult and youth.
Eliminate gender disparities in schools.
Reduce poverty, develop good governance and achieve environmental sustainability.
Somaliland’s Education Sector Strategic Plan covers the period 2012-2016 and covers the full education sector. It set as priorities:
Delivery of good quality primary education to as many children as possible. This necessitates sufficient numbers of classrooms, well maintained facilities and trained and motivated teachers.
Cost effective provision of secondary, technical and vocational education and training, higher education and continuous teacher development.
Reform of the curricula, efficient examinations and good sector management.
The plan sets targets for each goals, and defines as one of its overarching objectives to improve gender equity, to fight the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and to raise awareness for the environment.
The government of Somaliland has committed to increasing the education budget and to managing resources efficiently.